These hats - Shtreimels -are generally worn by Hasidic Jews - - all over the world. They are also worn by non-Hasidic Ultra Orthodox native Jerusalemites, though the differences between the two groups are non-existent to an "outsider".
They are typically worn (though there are exceptions) by married men and only on the Sabbath or holidays.
Though the greatest concentrations of Hasidim are in Israel (mainly in Jerusalem and Bne Braq, though there are relatively smaller communities throughout Israel), you would be surprised at the amount of cities the world over where you can actually find someone wearing a Shtreimel. You may have even seen a Shtreimel wearer, though since it was a weekday they were not wearing it at the time.
There are very large Hasidic communities in the greater New York City area (approx 240, 000 as of 2011), London, Montreal, Antwerp among others, and smaller ones (anywhere from a few families to a few hundred) in cities innumerable to count.